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《中國關鍵詞:抗擊新冠肺炎疫情篇》(第四批)

發布者:上海翻譯公司     發布時間:2020-4-28

  《中國關鍵詞:抗擊新冠肺炎疫情篇》

  Keywords to Understand China: The Fight Against COVID-19

 

  七、戰“疫”微鏡頭

  PART SEVEN

  Unity Is Strength.

 

  1.習近平赴一線考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作

  2020年2月10日,習近平在北京調研指導新型冠狀病毒肺炎疫情防控工作。3月2日,習近平在北京考察新冠肺炎防控科研攻關工作。3月10日,習近平專門赴抗擊疫情的主戰場湖北省武漢市考察新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,在火神山醫院和東湖新城社區這兩個抗疫陣地,看望慰問奮戰在一線的廣大醫務工作者、解放軍指戰員、社區工作者、公安干警、基層干部、下沉干部、志愿者和患者群眾、社區居民,勉勵大家堅定信心,戰勝疫情??疾炱陂g,他在向居家隔離的社區居民揮手致意,鼓勵“大家一起加油”,叮囑“武漢人喜歡吃活魚,多組織供應”,點贊醫務人員是新時代“最可愛的人”,表達“黨和人民感謝武漢人民”深切之情。

  實地考察結束后,習近平主持召開了一場電視電話會議,這是繼2月23日統籌推進新冠肺炎疫情防控和經濟社會發展工作部署會議、3月6日決戰決勝脫貧攻堅座談會之后,他與湖北各地領導干部再次以這種方式 “面對面”。在會議講話中,習近平作出重要判斷:湖北和武漢疫情防控形勢發生積極向好變化,取得階段性重要成果,初步實現了穩定局勢、扭轉局面的目標。當前,疫情防控任務依然艱巨繁重。越是在這個時候,越是要保持頭腦清醒,越是要慎終如始,越是要再接再厲、善作善成,繼續把疫情防控作為當前頭等大事和最重要的工作,毫不放松抓緊抓實抓細各項防控工作,堅決打贏湖北保衛戰、武漢保衛戰。

  習近平指出,這次新冠肺炎疫情防控是對治理體系和治理能力的一次大考,既有經驗,也有教訓。要放眼長遠,總結經驗教訓,加快補齊治理體系的短板和弱項,為保障人民生命安全和身體健康筑牢制度防線。要著力完善城市治理體系和城鄉基層治理體系,樹立“全周期管理”意識,努力探索超大城市現代化治理新路子。

  1. Xi Jinping Inspecting Frontline Epidemic Prevention and Control

  On February 10, 2020, Xi Jinping inspected COVID-19 prevention and control work in Beijing. On March 2, he visited the scientists and researchers working against the coronavirus in the capital city.

  On March 10, the Chinese president went to Wuhan, the main battleground, to inspect the prevention and control work. He visited the Huoshenshan Hospital and the Donghu Xincheng Community, where he greeted the front-line medical workers, People’s Liberation Army (PLA) commanders and soldiers, community workers, police officers, grassroots officials and those designated from higher levels, volunteers, patients and residents. He encouraged them to fight with confidence to win the battle against the epidemic. During his visit to the residential quarters, the president waved to the residents undergoing home quarantine and encouraged them to “join the efforts and fight together.” He urged local officials to guarantee the supply of fresh fish, which is well liked by Wuhan people. Xi praised the healthcare workers as “the most admirable people” in the new era, and expressed deep gratitude from the Party and the whole nation to the Wuhan people. Xi Jinping chaired a teleconference after the field inspection. It was the first time he “met” with officials from across Hubei Province in this way after a teleconference to coordinate national epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development on February 23, and another on poverty elimination on March 6.

  Xi told the conference that the epidemic containment in Hubei and Wuhan is trending on a positive direction, with initial progress achieved in stabilizing the situation and turning the tide. However, the task remains arduous. At this critical moment, people must be sober-minded, remain alert, continue the efforts and continue to take epidemic prevention and control as the top priority and the most important task. All prevention and control measures should be implemented down to the last detail, to defend Wuhan and Hubei and win the war against the epidemic.

  Xi pointed out that the response to the epidemic is a big test of China’s governance system and capacity. There are both experience and lessons. People should take a long-term view, draw experience and lessons for the future, and work swiftly to address inadequacies and fix weak links in the governance system, so as to consolidate the institutional defense to ensure people’s health and safety. Efforts should be made to enhance urban governance as well as urban and rural community management. People should develop “full-cycle management” awareness, and explore new ways of modernizing the governance of mega cities.

  2. 廣大醫務工作者

  新冠肺炎疫情發生后,廣大醫務工作者毅然告別家人,白衣執甲、逆行出征、全力救治患者,展現了救死扶傷、醫者仁心的崇高精神。習近平在武漢考察時對奮戰在一線的醫務工作者給予高度評價,稱贊他們是新時代最可愛的人,是光明的使者、希望的使者,是最美的天使,是真正的英雄!

  習近平多次作出重要指示,對參與疫情防控工作的醫務人員送去關愛和鼓勵。他強調,醫務人員是戰勝疫情的中堅力量,務必高度重視對他們的保護、關心、愛護。要關心關愛一線醫務人員,落實防護物資、生活物資保障和防護措施,統籌安排輪休,加強心理疏導,落實工資待遇、臨時性工作補助、衛生防疫津貼待遇,完善激勵機制,盡心盡力幫助他們解除后顧之憂,使他們始終保持昂揚斗志、旺盛精力,持續健康投入抗疫斗爭。

  據統計,抗疫期間,人民解放軍、中央和國家部委、各省區市共派出340多支醫療隊、42000余名醫務人員馳援武漢。隨著疫情防控形勢逐步轉好,完成救助任務的各地馳援醫療隊將分批離開武漢、平安歸家。一張描繪著“白衣戰士”背影、寫著“謝謝你們,為我們拼過命”的海報刷屏網絡,道出了湖北和武漢人民的真切心聲。

  2. Medical Workers

  After the outbreak of COVID-19, a vast number of medical workers bid farewell to their loved ones and went in harm’s way. As warriors in white, they devoted every effort to save patients. Xi Jinping spoke highly of the medical workers on the front line, calling them “the most admirable people” in the new era, messengers of brightness and hope, the most beautiful angels, and true heroes.

  Xi Jinping made instructions on different occasions about the care for the medical workers fighting against the epidemic. He emphasized that medical workers are the backbone in beating the epidemic, and they shall be well protected and given full support. The front-line medics shall have access to sufficient protective equipment and daily necessities, and have off-days in rotation and psychological counseling. The pay package, additional subsidies and epidemic prevention allowances for the medical staff should be fully delivered, their worries be lifted, and incentive mechanism be further improved, so that they will stay strong and healthy to fight the epidemic.

  During the anti-epidemic combat, the PLA, central ministries and commissions, provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government altogether dispatched more than 340 medical teams consisting of over 42,000 healthcare workers to aid Hubei. As the conditions turned for the better, the medical teams completed their mission and withdrew in an orderly manner. A poster depicting the back of “soldiers in white” with the words “Thank you for fighting for us” went viral on the internet, as it voiced the heartfelt gratitude of the people of Wuhan and Hubei.

  3. 解放軍指戰員

  新冠疫情發生后,人民解放軍堅決貫徹中共中央決策部署,迅速啟動聯防聯控工作機制,緊急抽組精兵強將奔赴疫情防控第一線,成為抗疫戰線不可或缺的重要力量。習近平在2月23日召開的統籌推進新冠肺炎疫情防控和經濟社會發展工作部署會議上指出,人民解放軍指戰員聞令而動、敢打硬仗,展現了人民子弟兵忠于黨、忠于人民的政治品格。

  若有戰,召必至。在中共中央統一指揮下,全軍一萬余名醫護人員火線馳援,全力投入抗疫一線救治,第一時間批量接收患者,第一時間進入隔離病區,第一時間診治危重病人。武警部隊平均每天動用1000多名兵力、100余臺車輛,協助地方疫情防控部門擔負醫療物資調運卸載、防疫洗消和警戒值守等任務。各省軍區(警備區)出動民兵配合地方完成外來人員管理、場所消毒、警戒執勤、物資運輸、防疫宣傳等任務。

  “是軍人,就要隨時上戰場!”從加強領導指揮到火速馳援武漢,從全力救治患者到做好綜合保障,從組織應急科研攻關到加強人員物資投送,人民解放軍再次展現了人民至上的硬核力量:哪里有危難,哪里就有共和國軍人在沖鋒;哪里有需要,哪里就有人民子弟兵在奉獻。

  3. PLA Commanders and Soldiers

  After the outbreak of the coronavirus, the PLA resolutely implemented the decisions and deployment of the CPC Central Committee, and promptly launched joint prevention and control mechanism. Emergency teams were drawn to the front line, becoming an indispensable force in the anti-epidemic fight.

  At the meeting held on February 23 to promote nationwide epidemic control and economic and social development, Xi Jinping pointed out that the PLA commanders and soldiers had acted upon orders and were brave to fight a tough battle, which demonstrated the political character of the people’s army and their loyalty to the Party and the people.

  “If a war befalls, the PLA is ready to fight when the call comes.” Under the unified command of the CPC Central Committee, more than 10,000 PLA medical staff rushed to the front line and devoted themselves to saving lives. They were among the first to start receiving patients and treating the seriously ill in the isolated wards. Over 1,000 troops and 100 vehicles were mobilized every day to assist the local epidemic prevention and control departments in transporting and unloading medical supplies, cleaning and disinfecting, and posting guards. Militias were dispatched by provincial military commands (garrison commands) to assist local authorities in managing visitors, disinfecting public places, performing vigilance duty, delivering goods and materials, communicating epidemic prevention to the public and other tasks.

  “Soldiers are always be ready to go to the battlefield!” From strengthening leadership to rushing to aid Wuhan, from treating the ill to providing comprehensive support, from organizing emergency-related scientific researches to expanding personnel and material delivery capacity, the PLA has once again demonstrated the sheer force of putting people first: Where there is emergency, there is the pioneering people’s army; where there is a need, there is the dedicating people’s army.

  4.社區工作者

  抗擊疫情有兩個陣地,一個是醫院救死扶傷陣地,一個是社區防控陣地。習近平在北京市調研指導新型冠狀病毒肺炎疫情防控工作時強調,社區是疫情聯防聯控的第一線,也是外防輸入、內防擴散最有效的防線。把社區這道防線守住,就能有效切斷疫情擴散蔓延的渠道。

  在湖北武漢考察疫情防控期間,習近平走進東湖新城社區,與社區防控隊伍親切交流。他指出,上面千條線、下面一根針,群眾大事小事都在社區,大家就是臨時的“小巷總理”。在抗擊疫情的斗爭中,社區工作者們克服了人員不夠、資源不足、條件艱苦、防護措施不完善等各種困難,始終堅守著城市的第一道防線。疫情期間,武漢的社區全部實行網格化管理,網格員、下沉干部、志愿者、樓棟長等組成了一個個小組為社區居民服務:電話組負責接聽居民熱線,為居民答疑解難;報表組跟蹤監控居民健康情況,每日電話問詢;采購組則為居民買菜送藥等。隨著疫情聯防聯控工作的推進,全國有許多社區工作者、志愿者每天為居家隔離的居民送去生活必需品,隨訪健康狀況,為居民提供引導就醫、轉診、咨詢等服務。他們的無私奉獻,成為疫情防控中的動人風景,不斷筑牢著疫情防控的“社區防線”。

  4. Community Workers

  There are two fronts in the battle against the epidemic: hospital – the life-saving front, and community – the epidemic prevention and control front. When inspecting the epidemic prevention and control in Beijing, Xi Jinping emphasized that communities are the forefront of joint prevention and control, and also an effective defense line against importation of cases and intra-city/region transmission. We can effectively curb the spread if we hold firm the defense line in the communities.

  During his inspection in Wuhan, Xi visited Donghu Xincheng Community and talked with the community workers. He called community workers “temporary prime minister of the alleys,” who have to handle all kinds of matters that relate to people’s livelihood.

  In the battle against the epidemic, the community workers had overcome various difficulties such as insufficient manpower, limited resources, hard conditions and imperfect protective measures, and remained steadfast at the city’s front line of defense. As all the communities in Wuhan were under grid-based management, grid managers, officials designated from higher levels, volunteers and building coordinators formed different groups to serve the residents. There were telephone communication groups responsible for answering hotline questions for residents, report groups tracking and monitoring residents’ health status with daily telephone inquiries, and purchasing groups buying vegetables and medicines for the residents in need.

  A great number of community workers and volunteers across the country delivered necessities to self-isolated residents at home on a daily basis, followed up their health conditions, and helped residents see doctors, transfer to hospitals or get consultation. Their dedication shored up a strong defense line in the communities.

  5.公安干警

  新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,全國公安機關堅決貫徹落實習近平總書記重要指示精神和黨中央決策部署,全警動員、全力以赴投入戰疫情、防風險、保安全、護穩定各項工作,廣大公安民警、輔警不畏艱險、不怕犧牲,堅守崗位、英勇奮戰,全力投入到疫情防控和維護穩定工作。

  同時,公安部科學調配警力,組織省市縣三級公安機關按照15%、20%、30%的比例抽調下沉34.2萬余名警力支援基層一線。他們不怕疲勞、連續作戰,用生命護衛人民、維護安全。截至4月2日,全國共有60名公安民警和35名輔警犧牲在抗擊疫情和維護安全穩定第一線,其中20名公安民警被追授為全國公安系統二級英雄模范稱號。

  “疫情當前,警察不退”??箵粢咔槠陂g,廣大公安干警在做好自身防疫工作的同時,全力配合做好社會面疫情防控工作,依法打擊整治影響疫情防控和社會穩定的違法犯罪活動,著力做好復工復產依法保障工作,為推動全國疫情防控形勢持續向好作出了重要貢獻。

  5. Police Officers

  The public security organs across China resolutely implemented the instructions given by President Xi Jinping and the decisions and plans made by the CPC Central Committee. The whole police force was mobilized to join the battle. They went all out to combat the epidemic, guard against risks, and ensure safety and stability. The public security officers and police support officers met difficulties head on and remained steadfast to their posts, devoting all their efforts to tackling the virus and maintaining stability.

  The public security organs at provincial, municipal and county levels each dispatched 15%, 20%, and 30% of their police forces to support the communities. In total, 342,000-plus police officers worked tirelessly at the front line, risking their lives to protect the people and maintain security. As of April 2, 60 police officers and 35 police support officers sacrificed their lives at the front line, and 20 of them were posthumously honored as second-class heroes.

  “If the epidemic does not recede, the police will not retreat.” In the war against COVID-19, a vast number of police officers made great contribution to the society-wide prevention and control. Not only did they punish criminal and other illegal activities that hindered the anti-epidemic fight or undermined social stability, they also went to great lengths to support the resumption of work and production, thus contributing to the positive trending of epidemic prevention and control in China.

  6.基層干部

  基層是防疫前線,也是復工復產第一線。為最大限度發揮基層防控的力量和作用,習近平在2月3日召開的中央政治局常委會會議上強調,在疫情防控工作中,要堅決反對形式主義、官僚主義,讓基層干部把更多精力投入到疫情防控第一線。

  基層干部沒有警服、救援服、隔離衣,只有最普通的口罩。他們沒有執法證、資格證,只有一張張群眾熟悉的面孔,他們既擔負著基層管理,又是當地群眾的“跑腿員”“廣播員”“安全員”。疫情期間,廣大基層干部堅持想群眾之所想、急群眾之所急,奔走在大街小巷、田間地頭,深入細致開展疫情摸排,組織疑似病例隔離觀察,協調防護物資分配,宣傳普及防疫知識,用扎實行動保障人民群眾生活,當好人民群眾的“貼心人”。

  6. Grassroots Officials

  Grassroots units are at the forefront of the battle against the epidemic, and at the first line of resuming work and production. At the meeting held on February 3 by the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of the CPC Central Committee, Xi Jinping emphasized opposition to excessive bureaucracy and the malpractice of going through motions, so that grassroots officials can devote fully to epidemic prevention and control.

  Grassroots officials have no protective suits to wear. They only have masks. They have no power of law enforcement. They are just familiar faces to the locals. They are responsible for managing the communities, and serve as the “errand runner,” “broadcaster” and “security officer” of the people.

  During the outbreak, they were kept busy checking every block for epidemic screening, leaving no stone unturned. They arranged medical observation of suspected cases, coordinated the distribution of protective equipment, and spread knowledge of epidemic prevention to the general public. As “trustworthy friends of the people,” they safeguarded people’s wellbeing with concrete actions.

  7.下沉干部

  疫情防控是一場人民戰爭,構筑人民防線,守住社區防線,就能有效阻止疫情擴散蔓延。2020年2月10日,習近平在北京調研指導新冠肺炎疫情防控工作時強調,把防控力量向社區下沉,加強社區各項防控措施的落實,使所有社區成為疫情防控的堅強堡壘。這一要求,吹響了以社區為重點抗擊疫情的“集結號”。

  社區防控點多面廣,情況復雜多樣,要做好地毯式追蹤、網格化管理,又要照應居民合理必需的要求,保證社區有序運轉,任務十分艱巨。為增強社區防控合力,嚴密社區防線,全國各地黨政機關干部紛紛走出機關,分批下沉社區,極大緩解了社區聯防聯控中的人手緊張壓力,為開展精細化防控注入力量。下沉干部深入社區街道,積極配合社區干部做好人員排查、測量體溫、消毒隔離、宣傳引導、后勤保障等各項防控工作,為社區居民筑牢“防疫墻”。下沉干部與廣大社區工作人員、公安干警、基層干部和志愿者們并肩作戰,形成了有序參與聯防聯控、群防群治的強大力量。

  7. Officials Designated from Higher Levels

  Epidemic prevention and control is a war that involves every one of the country. As long as a people’s defense line is put in place and the communities are well defended, the spread of the virus can be effectively curbed. When inspecting the epidemic prevention work in Beijing on February 10, Xi Jinping emphasized the need to empower communities to implement prevention and control measures, making every community a strong bastion defending the epidemic. His request sounded the “rally call” to focus on community-centered battle against the virus.

  The prevention and control work in the communities are complicated. It is an arduous task to do blanket tracking on cases and exercise grid-based management, while attending to the reasonable and essential needs of residents and maintaining orderly operation of the communities.

  In order to create synergy and strengthen community defense line, numerous Party and government officials were designated to work in the communities. Their arrival greatly relieved the shortage of manpower. They assisted community workers in personnel screening, temperature check, disinfection and isolation, publicity and guidance, and logistics support, building a solid anti-epidemic defense for the residents. They worked side by side with local community workers, public security officers, grassroots officials and volunteers, forming a powerful inter-agency force to carry out society-wide actions.

  8.志愿者

  新冠肺炎疫情發生后,廣大志愿者積極有序參與疫情防控工作。據不完全統計,在總人口約1000萬的武漢,有5萬余名志愿者支援抗疫第一線?!耙咔椴簧?,我們不退”,這是全國抗疫志愿者的共同心聲。

  這些志愿者中,有黨員、退役軍人、學生、快遞員和普通百姓等,他們年齡不一,性別不同,來自各個崗位甚至不同國家,堅守在高風險、高強度的防控一線,真誠奉獻、不辭辛勞:主動組建團隊,接送一線醫護人員通勤回家,擔當“生命的擺渡人”;招募集結社區志愿者,24小時待命運送發熱居民就診,為隔離居民買菜送藥,協助社區防控工作;發起專項募捐行動籌集善款,協調采購防護物資并送往一線;發動高校學生,為一線醫護人員子女學習提供免費在線輔導和幫助;報名加入武漢方艙醫院播音員隊伍,為醫護人員和患者朗誦文章、緩釋心情等。廣大志愿者用點點滴滴的努力療愈著心愛的家園,成為戰“疫”時刻一束溫暖的光。

  8. Volunteers

  According to incomplete statistics, more than 50,000 volunteers joined the efforts in battling the epidemic in Wuhan, a city with a population of 10 million. “We will not retreat if the epidemic has not receded.” This is the pledge of all volunteers across the country.

  Among these volunteers were CPC members, ex-servicemen, students and deliverymen. Different in age and gender, and coming from different walks of life and different countries, they were totally dedicated to the high-risk and high-intensity work on the front line.

  Many volunteers served as drivers for front-line doctors and nurses to and from work, or as 24-hour standby for sending residents with fever for medical treatment. Many helped the self-isolated residents buy vegetables and medicines. Some launched targeted fund-raising programs and coordinated the purchase of protective equipment and delivered them to the forefront; some mobilized college students to offer free online tutoring for the children of front-line medical workers. Some volunteers acted as announcers in Wuhan’s temporary hospitals in an effort to soothe the patients and medical workers. Many a little makes a mickle. The efforts of the vast number of volunteers offered a warm light at the time of the anti-epidemic war.

  9.患者群眾

  新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,中國醫護人員盡己所能、全力以赴救治病患。截至3月底,新冠肺炎患者中年齡最大的治愈患者103歲,最小的僅出生17天。2020年3月10日,習近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作時對正在接受治療的患者送去慰問,鼓勵患者群眾樹立必勝信心,保持樂觀向上的精神狀態,主動聽從醫囑,積極配合治療。

  新冠肺炎救治工作中,重癥、危重癥的救治是重中之重,也是降低病死率的關鍵。面對這一最艱難的關隘,中國醫護人員對抗重癥的步履不停,通過組建院士巡診團隊,成立聯合專家組,七次修訂優化救治方案,組織插管小分隊,推廣中醫藥臨床使用等多項措施,提高治愈率、降低病亡率。在武漢,11家收治重癥、危重癥定點醫院的總床位達到9000多張,來自全國90多支國家級、省級的醫療隊的13000名重癥專業醫務人員參與新冠肺炎重癥的救治工作,接近全國重癥醫務人員資源的10%。截至3月31日,全國累計治愈出院病例超7.6萬例,治愈率為93.5%;其中,湖北全省累計治愈患者63000多例,治愈率超93%。

  9. Patients

  After the outbreak of COVID-19, Chinese medical workers have done their utmost to treat the patients. By the end of March, the oldest COVID-19 patient cured was 103 years while the youngest only 17 days. On March 10, during his inspection in Hubei, Xi Jinping expressed sympathy to the patients, tried to boost their morale, and asked them to follow the doctor’s advice for recovery at an earlier date.

  In the treatment of COVID-19, the severe and critical cases – the key to bringing down the fatality rate – were given top priority. To crack this toughest nut, Chinese medical workers have worked out different ways to treat the severe cases, with the goal of raising the cure rate and lowering the fatality rate. These included setting up a visiting team of academicians, forming an expert group, updating the treatment plan seven times, organizing an emergency intubation team for COVID-19 patients, and promoting clinical use of traditional Chinese medicines.

  In Wuhan, the number of beds in 11 hospitals designated for the treatment of severe and critical cases exceeded 9,000. More than 13,000 intensive care health professionals from 90-plus national and provincial medical teams participated in the treatment of severe cases, accounting for nearly 10% of the national intensive care personnel resources. By March 31, more than 76,000 patients had been cured and discharged, with a cure rate of 93.5%. Among them, more than 63,000 were in Hubei, with a cure rate of over 93%.

  10.普通民眾

  在抗擊疫情中,全國人民群眾在黨的科學部署與領導下,做到不慌亂,理性認知疫情,科學防控疫情。2020年3月10日,習近平在湖北省考察疫情防控工作時指出,要緊緊依靠人民群眾,充分發動人民群眾,提高群眾自我服務、自我防護能力。他要求,保障好群眾基本生活,暢通“最后一公里”。

  在這場全民戰“疫”中,廣大群眾自覺居家、減少外出,通過網絡在線拜年、工作、教學、采購等方式開啟“宅生活”,積極配合社區防控,共同努力守護來之不易的抗疫成效。廣大群眾在做好自身的防疫工作同時,也展現了大愛精神,紛紛通過各種形式與途徑支持武漢以及湖北其他地區。

  3月23日,中央應對新冠肺炎疫情工作領導小組對疫情防控形勢作出最新判斷:以武漢為主戰場的全國本土疫情傳播已基本阻斷,疫情防控取得階段性重要成效。這是全國上下同舟共濟、抗擊疫情的“成績單”,為全黨全軍全國各族人民繼續團結奮斗、最終戰勝疫情注入“強心劑”。

  10. Ordinary People

  Under the Party’s leadership and deployment, the whole nation did not panic in the face of COVID-19. Rather, they developed a rational understanding of the virus, and adopted a science-based approach to epidemic prevention and control. During his inspection in Hubei, Xi Jinping highlighted the need to closely rely on the people, fully mobilize them and improve their ability to serve and protect themselves. He requested that the basic livelihood of the people be ensured and “the last mile” service problems be solved.

  In this nationwide war against the epidemic, the people voluntarily stayed at home, reduced outings, and led a “stay-at-home lifestyle” by doing almost everything online, from sending New Year greetings, to working, teaching and buying things. They supported the community work in this way, in a joint effort to safeguard the hard-won achievements in epidemic prevention and control. While doing their own parts to combat the epidemic, the general public also assisted Wuhan and other parts of Hubei through a variety of forms, demonstrating the spirit of great love.

  On March 23, the Central Leading Group for COVID-19 Prevention and Control made the judgment on the development of the epidemic: The spread of the epidemic in China, with Wuhan as the main battleground, had been basically contained, which was a milestone in the anti-epidemic fight. This was an impressive “test report” as a result of the concerted efforts of the whole nation. It was also a strong boost to the Party, the PLA and the people of all ethnic groups in China to continue to work together for the ultimately victory over the epidemic.

 

  八、防控知識

  PART EIGHT

  Knowledge About COVID-19 Prevention and Control

 

  1. 正確使用口罩

  口罩是預防呼吸道傳染病的重要防線,可以降低新冠病毒感染風險??谡植粌H可以防止病人噴射飛沫,降低飛沫量和噴射速度,還可阻擋含病毒的飛沫核,防止佩戴者吸入。

  新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,口罩在疫情防控中起著重要作用。2020年1月30日,國家衛生健康委印發《預防新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎口罩使用指南》。2月5日,國務院應對新冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制印發《預防新型冠狀病毒感染口罩選擇與使用技術指引》。3月17日,根據疫情防控形勢向好和復工復產需要,聯防聯控機制修訂形成《公眾科學戴口罩指引》,從普通公眾、特定場所人員、職業暴露人員以及重點人員進行分類,并對不同場景下戴口罩提出科學指引的建議。

  口罩佩戴的基本原則是科學合理佩戴、規范使用、有效防護。根據相關指南、指引建議,在非疫區空曠且通風場所不需要佩戴口罩,進入人員密集或密閉公共場所需要佩戴口罩。在疫情高發地區空曠且通風場所建議佩戴一次性使用醫用口罩;進入人員密集或密閉公共場所,佩戴醫用外科口罩或顆粒物防護口罩。特殊人群如可能接觸疑似或確診病例的高危人群,建議佩戴醫用防護口罩(N95及以上級別)并佩戴護目鏡。

  佩戴醫用外科口罩時,鼻夾側朝上,深色面朝外,上下拉開褶皺,使口罩覆蓋口、鼻及下頜;按捏鼻夾,使之貼緊鼻梁,防止側漏。佩戴口罩前按規程洗手,佩戴時避免接觸口罩內側??谡峙宕?-4小時更換一次,如口罩臟污、變形、損壞、有異味時也要及時更換??谡终潞髴獙⒔佑|口鼻的一面朝里疊好,如需再次使用,可懸掛在潔凈、干燥通風處,或將其放置在清潔、透氣的紙袋中;如不再使用,應放入固定丟棄處,避免交叉感染。兒童不宜佩戴成人口罩,家長要幫助兒童正確佩戴口罩,并隨時關注佩戴情況,年齡極小的嬰幼兒不能佩戴口罩,易引起窒息。

  1. Using Facemasks Properly

  Facemasks are important for preventing infectious respiratory diseases and lowering the risk of COVID-19 infections. Facemasks can prevent patients from spraying droplets, reduce the amount and speed of droplets, and protect the wearers from inhaling droplet nucleus of the virus.

  Facemasks have been effective in preventing and controlling COVID-19. On January 30, the NHC published a Guide on Facemask Usage Against Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia. On February 5, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council published the Technical Guidelines for Selecting and Using Facemasks Against Novel Coronavirus Infection.

  On March 17, in response to work resumption as the disease prevention and control improved, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism published a Guide on Proper Usage of Facemasks by the Public, providing advice for wearing facemasks under different conditions for the general public, people at specific areas, people with occupational exposure, and key population groups.

  Facemasks should be worn and used properly to ensure effective protection. According to relevant guidance, in areas not affected by the disease, facemasks are unnecessary in open and well-ventilated places, but people should wear facemasks when entering crowded or enclosed public places. In high-risk areas, people should wear disposable medical masks in open and well-ventilated places, and wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95 when entering crowded or enclosed public places. Special groups who may contact suspected or confirmed cases should wear goggles and respirators of grade N95 or above.

  When wearing surgical masks, hold the mask with the nose strip on top and the dark-colored side facing outward, pull the mask over the mouth, nose and chins, and pinch the nose strip to conform to the shape of the nose.

  Wash hands according to procedures before wearing a mask and avoid touching the inside of the mask.

  Replace the mask every two to four hours, and change the mask when it is dirty, contaminated, distorted, damaged or smelly.

  Take off the mask with the side touching the nose and mouth folded inward, hang the mask in clean, dry, ventilated place or put it in a clean and ventilated paper bag for reuse.

  Dispose the mask in a specific garbage bin to avoid cross infection.

  Children should not wear the facemasks for adults, and parents should help their children wear facemasks properly.

  Babies cannot wear facemasks, which can pose suffocation risks.

  2. 盡量減少外出活動

  每個人是自己健康第一責任人。新冠肺炎疫情期間,除了政府和相關部門采取的防控措施外,每位公民做好個人防護,減少不必要的外出、聚集等行為,是對自己和他人健康負責,也是維護公眾安全的應盡義務。

  根據國家衛生健康委發布的《新型冠狀病毒肺炎診療方案(試行第七版)》,目前所見傳染源主要是新型冠狀病毒感染的患者。無癥狀感染者也可能成為傳染源。經呼吸道飛沫和密切接觸傳播是主要的傳播途徑。人群普遍易感。在備餐和聚餐過程中,人群相互之間都是密切接觸者,咳嗽、打噴嚏甚至近距離交談產生的飛沫,可直接傳播給整個聚會人群,極易造成疾病傳播,為疾病流行提供有利條件。因此,減少人員出行,避免參加集會、聚會是阻斷疫情的重要措施。

  加強個人防護,還要減少到公共場所活動,尤其是一些人員密集、空氣流動性差的公共場所,如商場、餐廳、影院、車站、機場、碼頭、展覽館等。這是因為,公共場所人員多、流動量大、人員組成復雜,一旦有病毒攜帶者,很容易造成人與人之間的傳播,進而引發病毒感染和疫情擴散。

  2. Minimizing Outings

  Everyone is the first person responsible for his/her health. During the outbreak of COVID-19, on top of the prevention and control measures taken by the government and relevant agencies, every citizen should be responsible for their own and others’ health, and fulfil the due diligence to maintain public security by protecting themselves and reducing non-essential outings and gatherings.

  According to the Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for COVID-19 (Trial Version 7) published by the NHC, patients infected by the novel coronavirus are the main source of infection. Asymptomatic coronavirus carriers are possible source of infection. Major ways of transmission are respiratory droplets and close contact with infected people. All people are vulnerable to COVID-19. While preparing meals or dining together, people are in close contact with each other. Droplets spread by coughing, sneezing and even talking in close distance may directly transmit to the whole group, which can easily spread the disease and facilitate the prevalence of the disease. Therefore, reducing outings and avoiding gatherings and parties are important measures to interrupt the transmission of the disease.

  People should strengthen personal protection by reducing visits to public places, especially where is crowded or poorly ventilated, such as shopping malls, restaurants, cinemas, stations, airports, wharves and exhibition centers. These public places are crowded with people from everywhere and have high population mobility, and virus carriers are easy to cause people-to-people transmission, incur virus infections, and spread the disease.

  3. 保持手衛生

  除了外出佩戴口罩,洗手也是預防傳染病最簡單、最有效的措施之一。日常工作、生活中,人們的手不斷接觸到被病毒、細菌污染的物品,手上的病原體可以通過手和口、眼、鼻的粘膜接觸進入人體。洗手可以簡單有效地切斷這一傳播途徑,有效降低感染新冠病毒的風險。

  為避免病毒經手傳播,應盡量減少接觸公共場所的公共物品和部位,同時注意勤洗手。以下情況應及時洗手:外出歸來,戴口罩前及摘下口罩后,接觸過淚液、鼻涕、痰液和唾液后,咳嗽打噴嚏用手遮擋后,護理患者后,準備食物前,用餐前,如廁后,接觸公共設施或物品后(如扶手、門柄、電梯按鈕、錢幣、快遞等物品),接觸嬰幼兒及哺乳喂食前,處理嬰幼兒糞便后,接觸動物或處理動物糞便后等。如不確定手是否清潔時,避免用手接觸口鼻眼;打噴嚏或咳嗽時,用手肘衣服遮住口鼻。

  正確的洗手方法是:使用流動水和肥皂或洗手液洗手,每次洗手應揉搓20秒以上,確保手心、手指、手背、指縫、指甲縫、手腕等處均被清洗干凈。不方便用流動水洗手時,可使用含酒精的免洗洗手液。

  3. Keeping Hands Clean

  Besides wearing facemasks when going out, washing hands is also one of the simplest and most effective ways to prevent infectious disease. In daily work and life, people may touch items contaminated by viruses and bacteria, and pathogens on their hands can get into their bodies through the mucosae of mouth, eyes and nose. Washing hands can easily and effectively interrupt transmission through mucosae and reduce the risk of COVID-19 infections.

  To avoid transmission of the virus through hands, people should avoid touching items and facilities at public places and wash hands frequently. They should wash hands under the following conditions:

  * before putting on facemasks;

  * before preparing and eating food;

  * before touching, feeding or breastfeeding babies;

  * after coming back from outside;

  * after taking off facemasks;

  * after touching tears, nasal discharge, sputum and saliva;

  * after coughing and sneezing;

  * after caring for patients;

  * after using the toilet;

  * after touching public facilities or items (such as handrails, doorknobs, elevator buttons, coins and express parcels);

  * after cleaning baby stools; and

  * after touching animals or cleaning their stools.

  People should avoid touching mouth, nose and eyes when not sure whether their hands are clean, and sneeze or cough into the elbow.

  The right way of hands washing is: Wash the hands with soap or liquid soap and running water, rub the hands for over 20 seconds each time, and make sure the palms, fingers, the back of the hands, nails, and the wrists and all other parts of the hands are cleaned. If running water is not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer instead.

  4. 健康監測與就醫

  發熱、咳嗽和呼吸困難可能是呼吸道感染或其他嚴重疾病導致的癥狀。應密切關注健康狀況,如果出現發熱、咳嗽等癥狀,應注意戴口罩等個人防護,及時就近就醫。

  公民應主動做好個人與家庭成員的健康監測,盡可能減少與有呼吸道疾病癥狀(如發燒、咳嗽或打噴嚏等)的人密切接觸,自覺發熱時要主動測量體溫。家中有兒童的,可早晚摸試其額頭,如有發熱及時為其測量體溫。

  發生以下兩種情況時應及時到當地指定醫療機構進行排查診治:一是出現發熱(腋下溫度≥37.3℃)、咳嗽、氣促等急性呼吸道感染癥狀;二是有武漢及周邊地區,或其他有病例報告社區的旅行史或居住史,或發病前14天內曾接觸過來自武漢及周邊地區,或其他有病例報告社區的旅行史或居住史的發熱伴呼吸道癥狀的患者,或出現聚集性發病。

  前往醫院的路上,應佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,盡量避免乘坐公共交通工具,路上打開車窗。在路上和到醫院時,盡可能離其他人至少1米距離。就醫時,應如實詳細講述患病情況和就醫過程,告知醫生近期旅行居住史、人員和動物接觸史等,配合醫生開展相關調查。

  4. Health Monitoring and Going to Hospital

  Fever, cough and breathing difficulties might be induced by respiratory infections and other severe diseases. People should closely monitor their health conditions, take personal protection measures like wearing facemasks, and go to see a doctor nearby when they display symptoms like fever and coughing.

  Citizens should monitor their health and that of their family members, minimize close contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory diseases (such as fever, cough or sneezing), and take temperature when feeling feverish. If there are children at home, parents can touch their foreheads in the morning and evening, and take their temperature in time if they have a fever.

  People should go to local designated medical institutions for health check, diagnosis and treatment under the following two circumstances: (1) displaying symptoms of respiratory infections such as fever (with axillary temperature ≥37.3℃), coughing and shortness of breath; or (2) having traveled to or lived in Wuhan or surrounding areas or communities where confirmed cases have been reported, or having contact, within 14 days before feeling ill, with patients who have fever and symptoms of respiratory infections and have traveled to or lived in Wuhan or surrounding areas or communities where confirmed cases have been reported, or having involved in clustered cases.

  On the way to see a doctor, people should wear surgical masks or respirators of grade N95, avoid taking public transportation, and open the window of the vehicle they take. They should keep at least 1 meter from others on the way to and after arriving at the hospital. They should tell the doctor in detail about their conditions, their recent travel and residence history, and their contact with people and animals, and cooperate with the doctor in relevant investigations.

  5. 保持良好衛生和健康習慣

  在新冠肺炎疫情期間,做好防護措施的同時,保持良好衛生和健康習慣可以有效降低感染風險。國家衛生健康委在2020年1月27日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》中介紹了保持良好衛生和健康習慣的主要做法:居室勤開窗,經常通風;家庭成員不共用毛巾,保持家居、餐具清潔,勤曬衣被;不隨地吐痰,口鼻分泌物用紙巾包好,棄置于有蓋垃圾箱內;注意營養,適度運動;不要接觸、購買和食用野生動物(即野味),盡量避免前往售賣活體動物(禽類、海產品、野生動物等)的市場;家庭備置體溫計、醫用外科口罩或N95口罩、家用消毒用品等物資。

  5. Maintaining Good Hygiene and Health Habits

  During the outbreak of the COVID-19, while taking good protective measures, maintaining good hygiene and health habits can effectively reduce the risk of infection. On January 27, the NHC released a Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia, which suggested the following ways to maintain good hygiene and health habits:

  * Frequently open the windows of your house for better ventilation;

  * Do not share towels with your family members;

  * Keep your home and tableware clean;

  * Sun-cure your clothes and quilts often;

  * Do not spit;

  * Wrap your oral and nasal secretion with tissue and throw it in a covered dustbin;

  * Balance your nutrition and exercise moderately;

  * Do not touch, buy and eat wild animals (gamey), and avoid visiting the market that sells live animals (poultry, seafood and wild animals);

  * Have thermometer, surgical or N95 masks, and domestic disinfectants at home.

  6. 不接觸、購買和食用野生動物

  野生動物是指所有非經人工飼養而生活于自然環境下的各種動物。許多野生動物帶有多種病毒,如果人與之接觸,可能將病毒傳播給人類。如艾滋病、萊姆病、埃博拉病毒、亨德拉病毒、猴痘、SARS、MERS以及新冠病毒等,都是通過野生動物傳播到人類。

  中國早在1988年就頒布了《中華人民共和國野生動物保護法》,規定禁止出售、購買、利用國家重點保護野生動物及其制品,禁止生產、經營使用國家重點保護野生動物及其制品制作的食品,或者使用沒有合法來源證明的非國家重點保護野生動物及其制品制作的食品。

  新冠肺炎疫情發生以來,濫食野生動物的突出問題及其對公共衛生安全構成的巨大隱患,引起社會廣泛關注。2020年2月24日,第十三屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會第十六次全體會議通過全面禁止非法野生動物交易、革除濫食野生動物陋習、切實保障人民群眾生命安全的決定,為維護公共衛生安全和生態安全,保障人民群眾生命健康安全提供有力的立法保障。為了人類健康,個人不要接觸、捕獵、販賣、購買、加工、食用野生動物。

  6. No Touching, Buying and Eating of Wild Animals.

  Wild animals refer to all kinds of animals that live in a natural environment without artificial rearing. Many wild animals carry multiple viruses that can be transmitted to humans through contact. Viruses like AIDS, Lyme disease, Ebola virus, Hendra virus, monkey pox, SARS, MERS, and novel coronavirus can spread to humans through wild animals.

  China promulgated the Law on the Protection of Wildlife in 1988, which prohibits the sale, purchase and utilization of wildlife that are under special state protection and their products, and prohibits the production and sale of food made of wildlife that are under special state protection and their products, or of food made of wildlife that are not under special state protection and their products without proof of legal source.

  After the outbreak of the COVID-19 epidemic, the prominent problem of eating wild animals and the huge potential dangers to public health have aroused wide concerns. On February 24, the 16th plenary meeting of the Standing Committee of the 13th National People’s Congress decided to thoroughly ban illegal wildlife trade and break the bad habit of eating wild animals, so as to effectively guarantee the safety of the people’s lives. This decision provided strong legislative guarantee to safeguard public health and ecological security and to protect people’s lives and health. For the sake of human health, people must not touch, hunt, sell, buy, process, or eat wild animals.

  7. 家庭防控

  家庭是社會的細胞,也是抗擊疫情的基礎力量和重要防線。目前諸多新冠肺炎病例中,家庭聚集性感染的特征較為突出,這是因為多人長時間聚集在同一空間,很容易造成病毒傳播擴散,出現“一人感染,一家傳染”的情況。

  家庭防控主要指為防止疫情擴散,以家庭為單位,在社區的指導下,各自做好自我管理和家庭管理。國家衛生健康委在2020年1月27日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》中介紹了“家庭新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎預防指南”,提供了適用于家庭場所的日常預防建議:一是避免去疾病正在流行的地區;二是減少到人員密集、尤其是空氣流動性差的公共場所活動三是不要接觸、購買和使用野生動物,避免前往售賣活體動物的市場,禽肉蛋要充分煮熟后食用;四是居室保持清潔,勤開窗通風;五是隨時保持手衛生六是外出佩戴口罩七是保持良好衛生和健康習慣八是主動做好個人及家庭成員的健康監測九是準備常用物資,如體溫計、一次性口罩、家用消毒用品等。此外,該《指南》還對家庭成員出現可疑癥狀時的情況提供了防控建議,強調如家庭成員出現新冠肺炎可疑癥狀,應及時佩戴口罩并就醫;如家庭中有人被診斷為新冠肺炎患者,其他家庭成員如果經判定為密切接觸者,應接受14天醫學觀察;患者和密切接觸者應避免與無癥狀的其他家庭成員近距離接觸;對有癥狀的家庭成員經常接觸的地方和物品進行消毒等。

  7. Family Prevention and Control

  The family is the cell of society and an important place of defense against the epidemic. Among novel coronavirus cases, family infections are prominent. The gathering of people in the same space for a long time can easily cause virus spreading and result in “infection of a whole family by one confirmed member.”

  The Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia issued by the NHC made the following suggestions for family members:

  * Avoid visiting areas where the disease is prevalent;

  * Reduce visits to crowded public places, especially places of poor ventilation;

  * Do not touch, buy and eat wild animals; avoid visiting markets that sell live animals, and cook poultry, eggs and meat thoroughly;

  * Keep your home clean and open windows frequently for better ventilation;

  * Maintain hand hygiene;

  * Wear a mask when going out;

  * Keep good personal hygiene and health habits;

  * Monitor health conditions of yourself and your family members;

  * Keep necessary medical supplies at home, such as thermometer, disposable masks and domestic disinfectants.

  The Guidance suggested that family members with suspicious symptoms should wear masks and seek prompt medical advice; when one family member is diagnosed with COVID-19, other members, if identified as close contacts, have to take medical observation for 14 consecutive days; patients and close contacts should avoid close contact with other family members who have no symptom; and the places where the family member with symptoms stays and the objects he/she frequently touches should be sterilized.

  8. 公共場所防控

  公共場所是公眾進行社會活動的重要載體,也是防控傳染病發生流行的重點環節,公共場所衛生安全關系人民群眾健康和經濟社會發展。為加強疫情防控,2020年1月30日,國務院應對新冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制印發《公共場所新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎衛生防護指南》,對賓館、商場、影院、游泳館、博物館、候車(機)室、辦公樓等人群經常聚集活動的公共場所和工作場所的衛生防護提出措施指引和操作要求。

  公共場所衛生操作方面,重點做好物體表面清潔消毒,對高頻接觸的物體表面(如電梯間按鈕、扶手、門把手等),可用含氯消毒劑、消毒濕巾進行噴灑或擦拭;加強餐(飲)具的消毒、衣服、被褥、座椅套等紡織物及衛生潔具的清潔消毒;加強通風換氣,保持場所內空氣流通,首選自然風;定期清洗空調濾網,未使用空調時應關閉回風通道;確保場所內洗手設施運行正常,配備足量洗手液、速干手消毒劑或感應式手消毒設施;加強垃圾分類管理,及時收集并清運,定期對垃圾桶等垃圾盛裝容器進行消毒清潔;設立應急區域,當出現疑似或確診病例時,及時到該區域進行暫時隔離和規范處理;在場所內顯著區域,開展防控健康宣教。

  個人防護方面,工作人員要做好“三注意”,即注意個人衛生防護、注意手衛生、注意身體狀況。流動人員要減少聚集,減少不必要的外出,如果外出應做好個人防護和手衛生,在人口較為密集的公共場所,建議佩戴醫用口罩、勤洗手等;辦公樓等場所要加強對來訪人員健康監測和登記等工作。

  8. Public Places Prevention and Control

  Public places are where the general public take part in social activities, therefore they are a key link in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. These places are related to people’s health and economic and social development.

  On January 30, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council published a Guide on Health Protection of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia in Public Places, listing suggestions and requirements for health protection in public places and workplaces where people often gather, such as hotels, shopping malls, cinemas, swimming pools, museums, waiting rooms and lounges, and office buildings.

  * For hygienic practices in public places, it is important to clean and disinfect the surface of objects. Spray or wipe the surfaces with high frequency of contact (elevator buttons, handrails and door handles) with chlorine-containing disinfectants and disinfectant wipes;

  * Ensure disinfection of food (drinking) utensils, sanitary ware, and textiles such as clothes, bedding and seat covers;

  * Well ventilate the rooms, with natural wind preferred;

  * Clean the air conditioning filters regularly, and close the air return channel if not in use;

  * Ensure normal operation of hand washing facilities and adequate hand sanitizers, quick-dry hand disinfectants or inductive hand disinfection facilities;

  * Strengthen garbage classification management, timely collection and removal of garbage, and regular disinfection and cleaning of garbage cans and other containers;

  * Set an emergency area for temporary isolation and standard treatment of suspected or confirmed cases;

  * Post health education materials about epidemic prevention and control in a conspicuous place in the site.

  In terms of personal protection, the staff should pay attention to personal protection, hand hygiene, and physical condition. Mobile personnel should reduce gatherings and unnecessary outings. They must make sure of personal protection and hand hygiene if going out. In crowded public places, it is recommended to wear medical masks and wash hands frequently. Health monitoring and registration of visitors shall be made at office buildings and other places.

  9. 公共交通工具防控

  公共交通工具具有人流量大、人員來源復雜、密切接觸可能性大等特點,僅僅靠采取消毒措施切斷傳播途徑來預防疾病傳播具有較大難度。因此,應通過加強人員管理、環境衛生及消毒、健康宣教等措施,保障公共交通工具上人員的安全健康。

  國家衛生健康委在2020年1月27日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》中,對飛機、火車、地鐵、公共汽車和輪船等公共交通工具的衛生防護提供措施建議。1月29日,國務院應對新型冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制印發《公共交通工具消毒操作技術指南的通知》,指導汽車、火車、飛機、輪船等公共交通工具做好消毒工作,防止新冠肺炎通過交通工具傳播和擴散。

  公共交通工具防控建議主要包括:發生疾病流行地區的公共交通工具在崗工作人員應佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,并每日做好健康監測;公共交通工具建議備置體溫計、口罩等物品;增加公共交通工具清潔與消毒頻次,做好清潔消毒工作記錄和標識;保持公共交通工具良好的通風狀態;保持車站、車廂內的衛生整潔,及時清理垃圾;做好人員工作與輪休安排,確保司乘人員得到足夠休息。

  9. Public Transportation Prevention and Control

  Public transportation features large flow of people, complex personnel source, and high possibility of close contact. It is difficult to prevent the spread of disease by only taking disinfection measures to cut off the transmission route. Measures such as strengthening personnel management, environmental sanitation and disinfection, and health education should be taken to ensure the safety and health of passengers.

  The NHC provided recommendations on hygienic protection of public transportation such as planes, trains, subways, buses and ships in the Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia released on January 27. On January 29, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a notice on applying the Technical Guidelines for Disinfection of Public Transportation, which provided disinfection suggestions of cars, trains, planes and ships to prevent the spread of the novel coronavirus through vehicles.

  The suggestions included:

  * On-duty staff of public transportation in epidemic areas should wear surgical or N95 masks, and carry out daily health monitoring;

  * Public transportation should have thermometers, masks and other items on them;

  * Increase the frequency of cleaning and disinfection of public transportation, and make records and identification;

  * Maintain good ventilation;

  * Keep the station and carriage clean and tidy, and clean up the garbage in time;

  * Schedule proper personnel work and rotating shifts to ensure the crew get enough rest.

  10. 辦公場所防控

  辦公場所防控主要指在辦公區域進行的疫情防控管理。隨著復工復產、人員陸續返崗,辦公區域人員密度大、停留時間長、人員構成復雜,增加了辦公場所的防控工作難度。國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》中,提供了辦公場所防控指南,即工作人員要自行健康監測,若出現新冠狀病毒感染的可疑癥狀(包括發熱、咳嗽、咽痛、胸悶、呼吸困難、乏力、惡心嘔吐、腹瀉、結膜炎、肌肉酸痛等),不要帶病上班;若發現新型冠狀病毒感染的可疑癥狀者,工作人員應要求其離開;公用物品及公共接觸物品或部位要定期清洗和消毒;保持辦公場所內空氣流通;洗手間要配備足夠的洗手液,確保供水設施運行正常;保持環境衛生清潔,及時清理垃圾等。

  此外,各地還就疫情期間辦公場所防控和工作人員防護提出措施建議。例如,建立主體責任制,明確辦公場所內各單位各部門的具體職責;辦公場所所在建筑的經營管理者要建立租用戶名錄清單,建立樓宇、院落出入口體溫監測、人員登記等防控措施;建立有針對性的防控工作方案;強化員工健康監測制度;加強重點崗位重點部門的風險梳理和應對措施;優化工作流程,降低感染風險;建立彈性工作制;減少會議等不必要的人群聚集性活動;保持辦公場所室內空氣流通;加強日常清潔和預防性消毒措施等。

  10. Office Prevention and Control

  Office prevention and control mainly refers to epidemic prevention and control management in the workplace. With the resumption of work and production and the return of personnel, the office area has a high density of staff with long stay and a complex composition, which increases the difficulty of prevention and control.

  The Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), released by the NHC on January 29, provided a guide to workplace prevention and control:

  * The staff should monitor their own health.

  * A sick employee should not come to work in case of suspicious symptoms of novel coronavirus pneumonia (such as fever, cough, pharyngalgia, chest distress, breathing difficulties, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, and muscle soreness).

  * People with suspected symptoms of the disease should be refused to enter the workplace.

  * Regularly clean and disinfect public goods and items or parts that are frequently touched by people.

  * Maintain indoor ventilation in the workplace;

  * Ensure sufficient hand sanitizers and proper operation of water supply facilities in the washroom;

  * Keep the workplace clean and tidy, and clean up the garbage in time.

  Various localities also adopted detailed measures for the prevention and control of office areas. These included:

  * Specify responsibilities of each unit in the office area;

  * The operator of the building where the office is located draw up a list of tenants, and take temperature check and personnel registration at the building or courtyard entrance;

  * Make targeted work plans for prevention and control;

  * Strengthen staff health monitoring;

  * Conduct risk analysis and work out counter measures for key posts and key departments;

  * Optimize workflow to reduce the risk of infection;

  * Adopt flexible work hours;

  * Reduce unnecessary meetings and other gatherings;

  * Maintain indoor ventilation;

  * Strengthen daily cleaning and preventive disinfection.

  11. 養老機構防控

  老年人群是新冠病毒易感高危人群,自我防護意識普遍較弱,因此,老年康復、護理、養老等機構應做好在院老年人群的防護措施。2020年1月底,國家民政部發出通知,要求各地全力做好養老機構新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,確保老年人安全健康。

  根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,養老機構防控疫情的主要措施包括日常預防措施,以及有老人出現可疑癥狀時的應對措施。疾病流行期間,建議養老機構實施封閉式管理,原則上不接待外來人員走訪慰問,老人不能離院外出,不再接受新入住老人,必須外出的老人回到養老機構后應密切觀察。此外,養老機構還應建立老人和工作人員的健康檔案,每日開展晨檢和健康登記;建立探訪人員登記制度,所有外來探訪人員應佩戴醫用外科口罩;倡導老人養成經常洗手的好習慣,確保環境清潔衛生。如有老人出現可疑癥狀時,及時為其安排單間進行自我隔離,由醫護人員對其健康狀況進行評估,視病情狀況送至醫療機構就診,并暫停探訪活動。

  11. Nursing Homes Prevention and Control

  The elderly are a vulnerable and high-risk group of the novel coronavirus with weak self-protection awareness. The institutions for elderly rehabilitation, nursing, and elderly care should take protective measures for the elderly.

  In late January 2020, the Ministry of Civil Affairs issued a notice requesting all localities to make every effort to prevent and control the novel coronavirus in elderly care institutions to ensure the safety and health of senior citizens.

  According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), major measures to be taken by the elderly care institutions included daily preventive measures and counter measures in case of suspicious symptoms of elderly people.

  During the epidemic outbreak, the elderly care institutions were recommended to perform closed management. Technically they should not receive visitors from outside, the elderly should not leave the institutions, and the institutions should not accept new arrivals. The elderly who have to go out should be put under close observation after returning to the nursing home.

  The old-age care institutions should establish health records for the elderly and staff, and conduct daily morning check-up and health registration; conduct registration of visitors and demand all visitors wear surgical masks; encourage the elderly to wash hand frequently and keep their rooms clean and tidy.

  In case of suspicious symptoms of an elderly, the institution should promptly arrange a single room for quarantine, ask the medical staff to assess his/her health status, send him/her to the medical institution for treatment depending on the condition, and suspend visits to the elderly.

  12. 幼兒園、學校防控

  幼兒園、學校是幼兒、學生集體生活的場所,易感人群集中,易導致交叉感染。為科學精準指導各類學校做好新冠肺炎疫情防控工作,維護師生員工生命安全、維護校園正常生活教學秩序,2020年3月12日,國家教育部應對疫情工作領導小組辦公室組織編寫的《幼兒園新冠肺炎防控指南》《中小學校新冠肺炎防控指南》《高等學校新冠肺炎防控指南》出版上線,對幼兒園、學校做好應對疫情工作具有指導意義。

  幼兒園、學校防控疫情的主要措施包括:返校前有過疫情高發地區(如武漢等地區)居住史或旅行史的學生,建議居家觀察14天期滿再返校;學生返校后應每日監測體溫和健康狀況,盡量減少不必要外出,避免接觸其他人員;學生與其他師生發生近距離接觸的環境中,要正確佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,盡量縮小活動范圍;學校密切監測學生的健康狀態,每日兩次測量體溫,做好缺勤、早退、請假記錄,如發現學生中出現可疑癥狀,應立刻向疫情管理人員報告,配合醫療衛生機構做好密切接觸者管理和消毒等工作;學校應盡量避免組織大型集體活動,教室、宿舍、圖書館、活動中心、食堂、禮堂、教師辦公室、洗手間等公共活動區域加強通風清潔,配備洗手液、手消毒劑等;校方對因疫情、因病誤課的學生開展網絡教學、補課,對于因病耽誤考試的學生,應安排補考,不應記入檔案。

  12. Kindergartens and Schools Prevention and Control

  Kindergartens and schools are places where young children and students live together, who are vulnerable to diseases and easily suffer cross-infection.

  To accurately guide various schools on epidemic prevention and control, protect the health of children and teachers, and maintain normal teaching order, the leading group on virus prevention of the Ministry of Education on March 12 released different guides on COVID-19 prevention and control in kindergartens, primary and middle schools, and colleges and universities.

  For the sake of epidemic prevention and control, the students should do the following:

  * Stay at home for a 14-day observation before returning to school if they have a travel or residence history from areas hit hard by the epidemic (such as Wuhan and other areas);

  * Monitor their body temperature and health every day after returning to school, reduce unnecessary outdoor activities and avoid contact with others;

  * Properly wear surgical or N95 masks when in close contact with their teachers and schoolmates, and minimize the scope of activities.

  Schools should do the following:

  * Monitor the health condition of students, take their body temperature twice a day, and make records of absence, early leave and leave;

  * Report to epidemic management staff in case of suspicious symptoms among students, and cooperate with medical and health institutions in the management of close contacts and disinfection work;

  * Avoid organizing large-scale collective activities;

  * Ensure ventilation and cleaning in public activity areas such as classrooms, dormitories, libraries, activity centers, canteens, auditoriums, teacher offices and toilets, and equip these places with hand sanitizers and hand disinfectants;

  * Provide online teaching and make-up classes that students have missed due to the epidemic and illness;

  * Arrange make-up exams for students who miss exams due to illness, which will not be recorded in the archives.

  13. 老年人防控

  老年人免疫功能弱,是傳染病的易感人群和高危易發人群,本次新冠肺炎疫情的危重癥人群中老年人居多。2020年1月28日,國家衛生健康委印發《關于做好老年人新冠肺炎疫情防控工作的通知》,要求將老年人的疫情防控作為當前的重要工作來抓,采取有效措施,切實降低老年人感染率,盡最大努力減少重癥和死亡病例。全國老齡工作委員會辦公室發布的《給老年朋友的一封信》倡議,老年人要科學防控,不要過度恐慌;盡量減少外出,做好個人防護;注重補充營養和食品衛生;合理適度鍛煉身體;主動學習相關防護知識等。

  根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,老年人群的主要防控措施包括:確保老人掌握預防新冠肺炎的個人防護措施、手衛生要求、衛生和健康習慣,避免共用個人物品,注意通風,落實消毒措施;倡導老人養成經常洗手的好習慣;老人出現可疑癥狀時,應自我隔離,避免與其他人員近距離接觸,由醫護人員對其健康狀況進行評估,視病情狀況送至醫療機構就診,注意及時佩戴醫用外科口罩,并避免乘坐公共交通工具;曾與可疑癥狀者有無有效防護的密切接觸者,應立即登記,并進行醫學觀察;減少不必要的聚會、聚餐等群體性活動,不安排集中用餐等。此外,若出現可疑癥狀的老人被確診為新冠肺炎,其密切接觸者應接受14天醫學觀察。病人離開后(如住院、死亡等),應及時對住所進行終末消毒。

  13. Prevention and Control for the Elderly

  The elderly with weak immune function are susceptible and high-risk groups of infectious diseases, and they are the majority of the severe and critical cases among the COVID-19 patients.

  On January 28, the NHC issued a notice on epidemic prevention and control among the elderly, requiring effective measures to reduce the infection rate, severe cases and deaths. The Office of the National Working Committee on Aging published a letter calling for the senior citizens to take scientific measures against the disease and not to panic; reduce outdoor activities and have personal protection; balance nutrition and ensure food hygiene; exercise moderately; and take protective tips.

  According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the main prevention and control measures for the elderly included:

  * Learn necessary personal protective ways against the disease, keep hands clean, and maintain hygiene and health habits;

  * Avoid sharing personal items, keep ventilation, and take disinfection measures;

  * Wash hand frequently;

  * Take self-quarantine and avoid close contact with others in case of suspicious symptoms, and ask the medical staff assess their health status and send them to medical institution for treatment depending on the condition;

  * Wear surgical masks and avoid taking public transportation when going to hospital;

  * Anyone who has taken no effective protection when having close contact with someone with suspicious symptoms should be registered immediately and put under medical observation;

  * Reduce unnecessary gatherings, dinner parties and other group activities, and avoid collective dining.

  If the elderly with suspicious symptoms are diagnosed with the novel coronavirus, their close contacts need to receive 14 days of medical observation. After the patient leave (such as hospitalization and death), the residence must be disinfected in time.

  14. 兒童防控

  兒童是新冠肺炎的易感人群之一。2020年2月2日,國務院應對新冠肺炎疫情聯防聯控機制發出通知,要求做好兒童和孕產婦新冠肺炎疫情防控工作。

  根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,兒童群體的主要防控措施包括:盡量避免外出,不到人員密集和空間密閉的場所,不走親訪友,不與有呼吸道感染癥狀的人接觸,確需外出的要正確佩戴口罩,做好防護措施;要養成打噴嚏或咳嗽時用紙巾或袖肘遮住嘴巴、鼻子的習慣;如果有發燒、生病的情況,一定要配合家長及時去醫院就醫;家長要加強居室通風,做好室內消毒,創造清潔生活環境,外出回家后洗手更衣再接觸兒童;家長要教會兒童正確的洗手方法,督促兒童勤洗手、不亂摸,適度運動、合理膳食、作息規律,幫助兒童養成良好的衛生習慣等。

  14. Prevention and Control for Children

  Children are one of the vulnerable groups of the novel coronavirus. On February 2, the Joint Prevention and Control Mechanism of the State Council issued a notice on ensuring effective control of the children and pregnant women.

  According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the main prevention and control measures for children included:

  * Reduce outdoor activities as much as possible, avoid going to crowded or poorly ventilated spaces, and avoid visiting relatives and friends or contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory tract infection;

  * Take good protection such as wearing a facial mask while going out;

  * Cover mouth and nose with tissue or elbow when sneezing or coughing;

  * Go to hospital with parents in time in case of a fever or illness;

  * Parents should improve room ventilation, and do indoor disinfection to create a clean living environment;

  * After returning from public areas, parents should wash hands and change clothes before contacting children;

  * Parents should teach children correct way of hand washing, urge children to wash their hands frequently, avoid touching public objects, balance nutrition and exercise moderately, work and rest regularly, and help children develop good health habits.

  15. 學生防控

  學生的身體健康牽涉到千家萬戶,是疫情防控的關鍵和重中之重。2020年1月29日,國家教育部宣布各地在疫情防控期間做好延期開學的準備,中小學應在延遲開學期間“停課不停教、不停學”。

  根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,學生群體的主要防控措施包括:寒假期間,有疫情高發地區(如武漢等地區)居住史或旅行史的學生,自離開疫情高發地區后,居家或在指定場所醫學觀察14天;各地學生均應盡量居家,減少走親訪友、聚會聚餐,減少到人員密集的公共場所活動;每日進行健康監測,并根據社區或學校要求向社區或學校指定負責人報告。寒假結束時,學生如無可疑癥狀,可正常返校;如有可疑癥狀,應報告學?;蛴杀O護人報告學校,及時就醫,待痊愈后再返校;返校途中,乘坐公共交通工具時全程佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,隨時保持手衛生,做好旅途中健康監測,避免與可疑癥狀人員近距離接觸;若旅途中出現可疑癥狀,應主動戴上醫用外科口罩或N95口罩,盡量避免接觸其他人員,并視病情及時就醫;如需前往醫療機構就診時,應主動告知旅行居住史,妥善保存旅行票據信息,配合相關密切接觸者調查等。

  15. Prevention and Control for Students

  The health of students involves thousands of families, which is the key and top priority of epidemic prevention and control. On January 29, the Ministry of Education proposed all regions postpone the new school term during the epidemic prevention and control period, and primary and middle schools “suspend classes with non-stopping teaching and learning” during the period.

  According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), the students should do the following:

  * Stay at home or in a designated place for 14-day medical observation after their departure if they have a travel or residence history from areas hit hard by the epidemic (such as Wuhan and other areas) during the winter vacation;

  * Stay at home, reduce visits to relatives and friends, parties and collective dining, and reduce visits to crowded public areas;

  * Conduct daily health monitoring and report to the designated people as required by the community or school.

  * Return to school at the end of winter vacation if having no suspicious symptoms;

  * Report to the school if having suspicious symptoms, seek medical advice in a timely manner, and return to school after recovery;

  * Wear surgical or N95 masks on public transportation on the way back school, keep hand hygiene, do health monitoring, and avoid close contact with people of suspicious symptoms;

  * Wear surgical or N95 masks in case of suspicious symptoms during the journey, avoid contact with others, and seek medical advice in a timely manner depending on the condition;

  * Inform the doctor about travel and residence history, preserve the travel tickets and information, and cooperate with the investigation about close contacts.

  16. 有疾病流行地區居住旅行史人員防控

  根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控公眾預防指南匯編》,在兩周內有武漢等疾病流行地區居住、旅行史的人員應做好登記、隔離和酌情就醫等防控措施,具體包括:盡快到所在村支部或社區登記,減少外出活動,尤其是避免到人員密集的公共場所活動;從離開疾病流行地區時開始,連續14天進行自我健康狀況監測,每天兩次;條件允許時,盡量單獨居住或居住在通風良好的單人房間,并盡量減少與家人的密切接觸;若出現可疑癥狀(包括發熱、咳嗽、咽痛、胸悶、呼吸困難、輕度納差、乏力、精神稍差、惡心嘔吐、腹瀉、頭痛、心慌、結膜炎、輕度四肢或腰背部肌肉酸痛等),應根據病情及時就診;就醫途中,應佩戴醫用外科口罩或N95口罩;避免乘坐公共交通工具前往醫院,路上打開車窗,注意時刻佩戴口罩、隨時保持手衛生,盡可能遠離其他人(至少1米),若路途中污染了交通工具,建議使用含氯消毒劑或過氧乙酸消毒劑,對所有被呼吸道分泌物或體液污染的表面進行消毒。

  16. Prevention and Control for People with Travel and Residence History in Epidemic Areas

  According to the Guidebook on Public Prevention of Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia, released by the NHC on January 29, people who have lived in or traveled to epidemic areas like Wuhan in the previous two weeks should take prevention and control measures, including registration, quarantine, and getting medical attention as appropriate.

  Specifically, they should do the following:

  * Register at local community or village administration as soon as possible, and avoid outdoor activities, especially visits to crowded public places;

  * Monitor their health conditions twice a day for 14 consecutive days starting from the day of leaving the epidemic areas;

  * Stay alone or in well-ventilated single rooms, if possible, and minimize close contacts with family members;

  * Seek medical advice immediately if they have suspicious symptoms related to COVID-19 (such as fever, cough, sore throat, chest distress, breathing difficulties, mildly poor appetite, fatigue, feebleness, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, headache, palpitation, conjunctivitis, mild myalgia in limbs or the lumbodorsal area);

  * On the way to hospital, wear a surgical or N95 mask, and avoid taking public transportation; have the car windows remain opened for good ventilation; keep the mask on and hands clear all the time; and stay at least one meter from other people;

  * Disinfectants containing chlorine or peracetic acid are recommended to sterilize all surfaces of the vehicle if contaminated by their respiratory secretions or body fluids.

  17. 居家隔離人員防控

  居家隔離是科學防控的必要手段,也是阻止病毒傳播蔓延的重要方法之一。為指導居家隔離醫學觀察的人員做好個人防護,預防和控制感染,國家衛生健康委在2020年2月5日印發的《新冠肺炎防控中居家隔離醫學觀察感染防控指引(試行)》中,對居家隔離醫學觀察隨訪者、居家隔離醫學觀察人員及其家庭成員或室友等相關人員的感染防控措施作出詳細介紹。

  根據該防控指引,居家隔離醫學觀察人員感染防控應注意:可選擇家庭中通風較好的房間隔離,多開窗通風,保持房門隨時關閉,在打開與其他家庭成員或室友相通的房門時先開窗通風;不隨意離開隔離房間,必須離開隔離房間時,先戴好外科口罩,洗手或手消毒后再出門;盡可能減少與其他家庭成員或室友接觸,保持1米以上距離并盡量處于下風向;避免使用中央空調;保持充足休息和充足營養,最好在隔離房間內進食、飲水,分時段共用衛生間,用后通風并用酒精等消毒劑對身體接觸的物體表面清潔消毒;講究咳嗽禮儀,咳嗽時用紙巾遮蓋口鼻,不隨地吐痰,紙巾及口罩用后丟入專門的帶蓋垃圾桶內;用過的物品及時清潔消毒;按居家隔離醫學觀察通知,每日上下午測量體溫,自覺發熱時隨時測量并記錄,出現發熱、咳嗽、氣促等急性呼吸道癥狀時,及時聯系隔離點觀察人員。

  此外,居家隔離醫學觀察人員的家庭成員、室友、物業保潔人員、保安人員等需接觸居家隔離觀察對象時,也應注意防控,正確穿戴和摘脫防護用品。

  17. Prevention and Control for People Under Home Quarantine

  Home quarantine is a scientific way and an important means to contain the virus from spreading. The Guidelines on Medical Observation at Home for COVID-19 Prevention and Control (Trial), released by the NHC on February 5, detailed the measures for people under home quarantine and their family members/roommates, and staff conducting follow-up visits to them.

  According to its suggestions, people under home quarantine and medical observation should do the following:

  * Stay in a well-ventilated room, and keep windows open for ventilation but door closed;

  * Open the window of their room for ventilation before opening the door that connects to where family members or roommates live;

  * Avoid leaving the room, and wear a surgical mask, wash or sanitize hands before going out, if they must;

  * Minimize contacts with family members or roommates, keep a distance of at least one meter from them, and try to be in the downwind direction;

  * Not use the central air-conditioning;

  * Get adequate rest and nutrition, and eat and drink in their own room;

  * Timeshare bathrooms, and after usage, keep the bathroom ventilated, and use alcohol and other disinfectants to sterilize all the surfaces of objects that are subject to physical contacts;

  * Practice the Cough Etiquette: covering mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing; no spitting; and putting the used tissues and masks into special waste receptacles with covers;

  * Clean and disinfect immediately all objects they have used;

  * Follow the notice for medical observation at home to measure body temperature every morning and afternoon or anytime when they have a fever;

  * Contact staff at the quarantine center if they develop acute respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and panting.

  If family members, roommates, staff of property management, cleaning and security, and other people need to come into contact with the people under medical observation at home, they are recommended to correctly wear and remove protective suits.

  18. 居家發熱患者防控

  冬春季節,呼吸道傳染病高發,普通感冒、流感和新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎均可導致發熱,但癥狀各有不同。如普通感冒通常表現為打噴嚏、流鼻涕、咽喉不適等明顯的上呼吸道癥狀,而全身癥狀較輕,不發熱或僅有短暫發熱。流感多為高熱,全身癥狀較重,伴有畏寒、頭痛、全身酸痛、鼻塞、流涕、干咳、胸痛、惡心、食欲不振等表現。新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎以發熱、乏力、干咳為主要表現,少數患者伴有鼻塞、流涕、腹瀉等癥狀。

  根據國家衛生健康委在2020年1月29日發布的《新型冠狀病毒防控指南(第一版)》,如果出現發熱、咳嗽等癥狀,以下任一情況,建議采取居家隔離的方式進行觀察,一是癥狀輕微,體溫低于38℃,無明顯氣短、氣促、胸悶、呼吸困難,呼吸、血壓、心率等生命體征平穩;二是無嚴重呼吸系統、心血管系統等基礎疾病及嚴重肥胖者。

  《指南》建議,居家發熱患者應注意休息,營養均衡,飲食宜清淡;多飲溫水,少飲冰涼飲料,保證脾胃功能正常;避免盲目或不恰當使用抗菌藥物;嚴格正確佩戴口罩,與家人分餐,與家人保持距離1.5米以上;怕冷、發熱、肌肉酸痛、咳嗽者,可選用具有解熱散寒、清熱解毒、宣肺止咳類中成藥;乏力倦怠,惡心、食欲下降、腹瀉者,可選用具有化濕解表類中成藥;發熱伴有咽痛明顯者,可選用具有清熱解毒利咽功能類中成藥;發熱伴有大便不暢者,可加用具有通腑瀉熱類制劑。此外,如果居家發熱患者體溫升高至38.5℃以上,可采取溫濕毛巾或冰貼等物理降溫措施,建議口服解熱鎮痛類、清熱解毒類中成藥。如果患者體溫持續2小時以上不退,出現胸悶、氣短、心率增快、腹瀉或嘔吐加重,建議到定點醫院、發熱門診就診。如果呼吸頻率出現呼吸頻率≥30次/分,伴呼吸困難及口唇發紺等表現,應撥打120急救電話,由急救醫護人員轉運到定點醫院、發熱門診救治。

  18. Prevention and Control for Fever Patients at Home

  Winters and springs see high incidences of respiratory infections. Common cold, influenza and COVID-19 can all lead to fever, but they are different in other symptoms. The symptoms of a common cold are obvious in the upper respiratory tract, such as sneezing, runny nose, and sore throat, and also there may be some mild general symptoms with transient fever or no fever. People with influenza may have severe general symptoms, often including high fevers, and other signs such as feeling chills, headaches, body aches, runny or stuffy nose, dry cough, chest pain, nausea, and lack of appetite. The symptoms of COVID-19 mainly are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients also have runny or stuffy noses, diarrhea and other signs.

  According to the Prevention and Control Protocol for Novel Coronavirus (1st Edition), home quarantine is recommended for those with symptoms of fever and cough if any of the following is met: (1) body temperature below 38℃, mild symptoms without obvious shortness of breath, tachypnea, chest distress, or breathing difficulties, and steady vital signs including breath, blood pressure and heart rate; (2) no severe underlying disorders in the respiratory or cardiovascular system, and no severe obesity.

  As advised in the Protocol, fever patients at home should get good rest, keep a light and well-balanced diet, and take warm water instead of cold drinks to ensure normal functions of the spleen and stomach. Blind or improper use of antibiotics should be avoided. Separate meals are encouraged at home. They should wear a mask correctly, and maintain at least 1.5-meter distance from other family members.

  For symptoms of feeling chills, fever, myalgia and cough, Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) for releasing heat, dissipating cold, detoxifying, and diffusing the lung to suppress cough could be taken; for fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, and diarrhea, CPMs for resolving dampness and releasing the exterior; for fever and obvious sore throat, CPMs for releasing heat, detoxifying, and soothing the throat; and for fever and poor bowel movement, Chinese medicine preparations for relaxing the bowels and purging heat could be added.

  If the temperature of a fever patient at home rises above 38.5℃, such measures as warm and wet towels and ice sticks could be used for physical cooling, and oral administration of CPMs for releasing heat, easing pain, and detoxifying is recommended.

  If the high temperature remains for more than 2 hours and the symptoms of chest distress, shortness of breath, as well as increased heart rate, diarrhea or vomiting are developed, it is advised to visit a designated hospital or fever clinic.

  If the respiratory frequency is higher than 30/minute, and there are symptoms of breathing difficulties and blue lips, call 120 for first aid to send him/her to a designated hospital or fever clinic by medical personnel.

  19. 疑似病例防控

  國家衛生健康委在2020年1月22日發布的《新型冠狀病毒感染的肺炎防控方案(第二版)》中,明確提出了新冠肺炎病例監測方案、流行病學調查方案、可疑暴露者和密切接觸者管理方案以及實驗室檢測技術指南,提出加強組織領導、病例發現與報告、流行病學調查等9項防控措施,指導各級各類醫療機構、各級疾控機構開展病例監測、發現和報告工作。根據該防控方案,疑似病例的定義為:有三項臨床表現,即發熱,具有肺炎影像學特征,發病早期白細胞總數正?;蚪档?,或淋巴細胞計數減少;同時,具有發病前14天內有武漢旅行史或居住史,或發病前14天內曾接觸過來自武漢的發熱伴有呼吸道癥狀的患者,或有聚集性發病或與確診病例有流行病學關聯等任何一項流行病學史的患者。

  該防控方案指出,醫療機構發現符合疑似病例、確診病例定義的患者時,應按要求開展流行病學調查、進行臨床標本采集與相關病原檢測;加強隔離、消毒和防護工作,對疑似病例進行單間隔離治療。

  19. Prevention and Control for Suspected Cases

  In the Protocol for Novel Coronavirus-infected Pneumonia Prevention and Control (2nd Edition), released on January 22, the NHC laid out guidelines for monitoring of the patients, epidemiological investigations, and management of suspicious exposures and close contacts, and technical guidelines for laboratory testing. Nine measures of prevention and control, including strengthening organization and leadership, case detection and report, and epidemiological investigation, were provided to guide healthcare facilities and disease control centers at all levels on monitoring, detecting and reporting infections.

  According to the Protocol, the definition of suspected cases considers both clinical and epidemiological features. There are three clinical manifestations: fever; radiographic imaging consistent with pneumonia; and normal or decreased white blood cell count, or decreased lymphocyte count in the early stages of the disease. The epidemiological history includes: history of travel to or residence in Wuhan within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; contact with a patient from Wuhan with fever and respiratory symptoms within 14 days prior to the onset of the disease; clustered cases; or epidemiological relation with confirmed cases. A suspected case is defined by having all the three clinical manifestations plus any of the epidemiological history criteria.

  It is stated in the Protocol that if patients who meet the definitions of suspected or confirmed cases are detected, healthcare facilities should conduct epidemiological investigations, specimen collections and lab testing, and strengthen measures for quarantine, disinfection, prevention and control. Suspected cases should be quarantined and treated in single rooms.

  20. 醫療機構就診防護

  國家衛生健康委在2020年1月30日印發的《新冠病毒感染不同風險人群防護指南》中,對需要到醫療機構就診的出行人員提出防護建議:佩戴醫用外科口罩,并保持手清潔;盡量避免乘坐地鐵、公交車等交通工具,避免前往人群密集的場所;就診時應主動告知醫務人員相關疾病流行地區的旅行居住史,以及與他人接觸情況,配合醫療衛生機構開展相關調查。

  同時,醫療機構應做好就診患者的管理,合理配置醫務人員,降低醫療機構內感染的風險;發現疑似或確診感染新冠病毒的患者時,依法采取隔離或控制傳播措施,并按照規定對患者的陪同人員和其他密切接觸人員采取醫學觀察及其他必要的預防措施;不具備新冠肺炎救治能力的醫療機構,應及時將患者轉診到定點救治醫院。

  20. Prevention and Control for Visiting Medical Institutions

  In the Guide on Protecting People Against Different Risks of Novel Coronavirus Infection, released on January 30, the NHC provided the following advice to individuals who need to visit a medical institution:

  * Wear a surgical mask and keep hands clean;

  * Avoid taking subway, bus or other public transportation, and avoid going to crowded places;

  * Inform medical staff of their histories of travel to or residence in the epidemic regions and contacts with others, and cooperate with the medical institution to carry out relevant investigations.

  Medical institutions should strengthen patient management, allocate medical staff properly, and reduce the risks for hospital-acquired infection. When a suspected or confirmed case is identified, quarantine or containment should be taken in accordance with law, and medical observation and other necessary precautions should be provided to the patient escorts and other close contacts. The institutions lack of the capability for treating COVID-19 should transfer the patients to designated hospitals in a timely manner.

 
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